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Universal Device Programmers

Universal Device Programmers

Some solutions are more “universal” than others

There are quite a few device programming solutions that describe themselves as “universal.” You would think everyone is using the term “universal” the same way. Think again.

“Universal” as an adjective, means: “of, affecting, or done by all people or things in the world or in a particular group; applicable to all cases,” (Definitions from Oxford Languages). What does it mean to be “universal?” First, let’s go back to the first “universal” programmer…

BPM 1200, the First Universal Programmer

In the early 1990s, there was no such thing as a universal device programmer. If you wanted to program a different family of devices (for instance, an EPROM and a TSOP), it required purchasing two (or more) different programmers. The reason was the interface between the device and the programmer was hard-wired.

In 1992, BPM Microsystems (back then, they were called BP Microsystems) developed the 1200 Manual Programmer with a serial port connector. It was the first “universal” programmer– you could request additional device interfaces that would allow you to program more than just one device (or family of devices). BPM developed the first socket adapters, which are now used by all off-line device programmers.

Universal Hardware/Software 

Each device has specific programming parameters. It is not just a matter of sending an electrical signal to a specific pin—each device requires a unique algorithm to ensure it is programmed correctly. 

For instance, for a device programmer to support a NAND flash device, two algorithms are needed. The first is the conventional device programming algorithm as specified by the semiconductor manufacturer. The second is the BBM algorithm. The BBM algorithm is a user-selectable software module that interfaces with the device programming algorithm. Its implementation depends upon the target system, not just the NAND device. The challenge is in obtaining a well-defined BBM algorithm specification. See White Paper Here.

Algos “translate” the data into a specific pattern based on the specs from the semi-house. It also sends the correct electrical signal to the correct pin. See Signal Integrity Article Here.

In 1996, BPM introduced the 4100, the first universal fine-pitch automated pick-and-place programming system. Finally, there was a solution to program, at scale, a variety of devices. Again, prior to the 4100, pick-and-place programmers could only program-specific families of devices.

Fast-forward to Today

BPM Microsystems pioneered universal device programming, but nowadays, most device programming solutions are “universal,” right? While it’s true that the days of single-use programmers (except for some extremely high-volume machines) died 25 years ago, that doesn’t mean that all “universal” programmers are truly universal.

Take, for instance, Data I/O. They make automated and manual device programmers in the US and China; they promote their programmers as “universal,” but that depends on your device programming requirements. Data I/O uses two different programming site technologies. Their FlashCORE III sites were developed in 2009; their newer LumenX sites came out in 2016. Let’s say you have a mix of eMMC, MCU, and EPROM devices to program. Their “universal” solution would require two sets of sites; LumenX sites for faster programming with eMMC devices and FlashCORE III to program the others. Are they, in fact, “universal?” Sounds like “not really.”

BPM’s 9th Generation Technology launched in 2016. 9th Gen sites with Vector Engine™ Co-Processor accelerate flash memory waveforms for programming near the theoretical limits of silicon design. The faster the device, the faster it’s programmed. With data transfer rates to 50 Gb per second, and verify rates up to 200 MB per second, 9th Gen sites offer the industry’s fastest times with even more capacity compared to other systems in its class. This is up to 9 times faster than competing “universal” programmers, offering the Largest Memory Support in the industry―256 GB, upgradeable to 512 GB. Plus, by downloading image files up to 25 MB per second to all programmers simultaneously, the system rapidly produces devices at maximum achievable throughput.

PSV5000 vs BPM 3928

Comparing the two platforms (Data I/O vs. BPM) with similar specifications in a typical configuration, a Data I/O PSV5000 would require two FlashCORE III sites, plus one LumenX site (total of 3), while a BPM 3928 would require two 9th Gen sites (which is included in the basic machine configuration). The BPM 3928 is upgradable to five more sites (a total of seven); The PSV5000 can add three additional sites for a total of 6 sites. But only three or four could be used at a time (depending on which site technology is added). The BPM solution is much less expensive because it is actually universal, and allows you to utilize all the connected sites simultaneously.

One could argue that the PSV5000 could be set up with six FlashCORE III sites or six LumenX sites (for a total of 12 sites)– you would only have to switch out the sites when you set-up for the specific job. Realistically, that’s not a viable option. The price for just the sites would cost more than double the original PSV5000 and would take many additional hours to do each change-over.

In the case of a site failure (it happens), with BPM’s universal sites and fault-tolerant hardware/software, the “dead” site can be automatically bypassed; thus, production still goes on (albeit, at reduced capacity). Recall the mix of eMMC, MCU, and EPROM devices to program. Their “universal” solution would require two sets of sites; LumenX sites for faster programming with eMMC devices and FlashCORE III to program the others. if the single LumenX site goes out on the PSV5000, your programming on the LumenX site is stopped until you can get the site replaced or repaired.

It’s always a good idea to plan for failures (they happen) by having a spare site available on-site (all APS manufacturers can provide you with spare kits). With BPM’s single-site technology, you only need one spare, which saves thousands of dollars. When getting a quote on an APS, make sure to ask for spares (and if you’ll need just one or two).

Universal could also mean “future-proof.” Knowing that 9th Gen sites can program legacy devices as well as the newest flash devices means your investment is not soon obsolete. BPM has customers that are still programming on ten- to 15-year-old (and older) 8th and 7th Gen machines. BPM continues to provide support for these legacy systems, and plan to for the foreseeable future.


Socket modules and socket cards are the electro-mechanical interfaces between the programmable semiconductor device and the programmer. It’s one of the secrets to BPM’s Universal Programming. The robust design is ideal for manufacturing and design environments where high signal integrity and reliable performance are critical.

The sophisticated technology of BPM Microsystems’ active circuitry delivers the cleanest waveform signals to the device by eliminating noise, ground bounce, and overshoot, which allows for the most reliable vector testing available to ensure the highest quality and overall yield.

Signal Integrity designed into the socket card allows for high quality/high-speed communication between the programmer and the device under test (DUT). High-quality communication allows for high-speed data transfer.  How?

  • Multiple layer PCBs
  • Ground plane
  • Controlled impedance
  • Active circuit
  • High-quality, gold-plated Samtec connectors on all 9th Gen Sites and Sockets

BPM Microsystems offers a substantial number of socket modules and socket cards to support thousands of devices from over 218 semiconductor manufacturers. Currently, there are over 39,000 devices supported on 9th Gen (three times greater than BPM’s nearest competitor).

New socket module and socket card designs are continuously added and can be requested to meet your programming needs (you can request support here).

“Universal” also means many of our older sockets (7th and 8th Gen) work with 9th Gen sites. When you upgrade to 9th Gen’s much faster programming protocol, it’s possible you can use your existing sockets (see if your socket is compatible here).

Universal Device programming with 9th Gen

First Article to automated device production, use the same software, same sockets, same algos, same results.

Finally, universal means using the same software (BPWin), and sockets/algos on all 9th Gen programmers, from manual to automated (the only additional thing needed on the automated programmers are pressure plates which are inexpensive and last forever). No matter if it’s the first article to final production, nearly everything is compatible.


BPM’s universal device programmers are truly universal, in every sense of the word. In an uncertain world during uncertain times, it’s comforting to know a BPM solution will deliver years of reliably programmed devices, and that “universal” actually means “universal.”

Disaster Recovery for a Modern Manufacturing Operation

Disaster Recovery for a Modern Manufacturing Operation

Some things to consider in a Disaster Plan

See Disaster Recovery Article

  • Hardware/Software contracts are up-to-date
    • Ensures the fastest response in line-down situations
    • Spares are on-site and/or available overnight
  • Schedule deliveries for consumables, especially sockets
    • Sockets are consumable items
    • The schedule ensures they are manufactured/delivered based on your requirements
    • Lead time to build a socket can vary, from days to weeks
  • Multiple prequalified vendors
  • Pre-qualify First Articles ahead of time from your partner supplier
  • Negotiate price per device before the disaster takes place

Some problems are good. It’s important for the modern manufacturing operation to prepare for the worst, and the best. There are lots of things that can go wrong. Add this to the list: what happens if one or more people on your line come down with Covid-19? You still have parts to program and production lines to supply. And as things rebound, what will you do if you are hit with an increase in orders? You (no doubt) have built-in capacity; but what if it doubles, or triples (or more)?

BPM Microsystems builds systems and accessories that make it easy and cost-effective to make device programming a viable (and profitable) option in-house. Their line of programmers is universal, meaning they utilize the same software and accessories, from the smallest to the largest systems. From the first article (the initial first approved programmed device) to production, the only difference is throughput. Manual systems are perfect for starting out and/or smaller lot sizes (up to 50,000 parts per year). They also come in handy to augment the automated system’s capacity, or for programming short-run parts.

BPM’s automated systems are the fastest and easiest to set-up of any programming systems. They are made for programming large data devices, such as eMMC HS400, NAND, NOR, and Serial Flash devices, and other nonvolatile memory devices such as MCUs, PLDs, and FPGAs. High-speed signals support devices up to 200 Mhz and the latest eMMC HS400 modes with data transfer rates of 2.5 nanoseconds per byte. With data transfer rates to 50 Gb per second, and verify rates up to 200 MB per second, BPM’s Automated Systems offer the industry’s fastest times. This is up to 9 times faster than competing “universal” programmers, offering the Largest Memory Support in the industry―256 GB, upgradeable to 512 GB. 

WhisperTeach™ & CyberOptics™

WhisperTeach™ is patent-pending hardware/software that automates the critical z-height measurement, which reduces set-up times by as much as 83%. More importantly, it improves yield and job performance compared to manual teaching methods. CyberOptics™ vision component auto measure delivers on-the-fly alignment to maximum device reliability and throughput.

Learn more about WhisperTeach™ auto Z-height teach system here

Add Capacity

Adding capacity is fairly straightforward. The first option is to add overtime and/or add shifts. BPM’s set-ups don’t require extensive training, so quality and throughput won’t decline after 5 pm. Next, add programming sites and sockets to existing workflows. If utilizing manual systems, additional programmers can be “daisy-chained” to a single workstation (up to 12 total). For automated programmers, additional sites may be added. Each site has the ability to add up to 4 additional sockets (a socket is the electrical interface of hardware/software to program a specific device). Adding sites can double, triple (up to 10X) capacity, depending on which system is used. BPM’s universal sites mean you don’t need two different site technologies for programming different classes of devices. BPM supports more than triple the number of devices as their nearest competitor (36K vs 12K).

Some BPM systems, such as the low-cost 3901 or 8th Generation automated systems, can be upgraded for higher throughput, with more devices per hour and/or additional sites or peripherals.

When you experience a line-down (for whatever reason), you need solutions that allow you to quickly shift production without skipping a beat. For programming devices, contact your nearest programming center, such as Arrow, Avnet, or A&J. The set-up files can be securely transmitted; if they don’t have the sockets, simply overnight the sockets used on your production. Utilizing programming centers is another way to balance out your work-flow; when a temporary need overwhelms your workflow, you can outsource for extra capacity.


It’s not a matter of “if” things go wrong. It’s a mathematical certainty. If 2020 has taught us anything, it’s prudent to be ready for just about anything. With a little forward planning, you should keep production moving. BPM’s systems are built to grow with your business; they have programmers that are still operating daily after 15 years or more. Contact your preferred Programming Center and BPM Microsystems to develop a disaster plan in advance.

See “Market Forces” Article here

BPM compares the 1710 and the 2900 Manual Programmers

BPM compares the 1710 and the 2900 Manual Programmers

BPM compares the 1710 and the 2900 Manual Programmers

Join Shelby B., our Inside Sales Intern, as she breaks down the benefits of the 1710 7th Gen manual programmer vs. the 2900, our latest 9th Gen manual programmer.

Features of the 1710

  • Program up to 4 devices at once using the FX socket modules
  • Able to support the FSM48D (handles 98% of the DIP package devices) and FSM84UP (handles 95% of the PLCC package devices) modules
  • Supports hundreds of different packages with a broad range of socket modules.
  • Supports many legacy devices: PLD, MCU, PAL, GAL, CPLD, FPGA, EPROM, NOR Flash, EEPROM, Actel Antifuse devices, and more
  • 49400 devices supported out of the box
  • Supports high and very low voltage devices
  • Industry-standard for mission-critical Aerospace and Military programing
  • Lifetime software renewal is included with this machine

Features of the 2900

  • Modern High-Speed Universal Programmer capable of programming at the theoretical limits of the device
  • Proprietary Vector Engine Coprocessor that stands alone in the industry
  • Designed more like a high-speed test system
  • Boasts a support list of almost 40,000 devices
  • Weekly device support additions
  • Programs up to 4 devices at a time using socket cards and daughter cards (FVE, LX, WX, WAS, WS)
  • Can purchase a single socket card for first article qualification
  • Programmer workhorse, capable of programming 10’s of thousands of devices annually.
  • Up to twelve (12) 2900 programmers can run a job at a single workstation Has backward compatibility with (almost) all devices supported on the 8th Generation (2800, 3800, 4800, etc) and most devices supported on the 7th Generation (1710, 2710, 3710, etc)
  • Supports the NAND flash series of devices
  • Supports the eMMC series of devices including the following programming speed modes: SDR, DDR, HS200 & HS400
  • 256GB onboard programming memory, expandable to 512GB
  • Technology poised to support newer high-density memory devices
  • Both use BPWin, the best process software The user experience and therefore the learning curve moving from a 1710 to a 2900 is almost nil.

To find out more, check out https://bpmmicro.com/device-programmers/manu…

Hey, y’all this is Shelby at BPM Microsystems. I’m with the inside sales team and you probably recognize my voice from some of those phone calls I make every day following up on y’all’s quotes and things like that. Anyways I just want to dive right in and talk about the 1710 programmer and the 2900 programmer and talk about some of the features and benefits that we offer here at BPM Microsystems.

All right so let’s dive right in and talk about the 1710 programmer. this is our programmer that programs a lot of our legacy devices. it was actually created in 2004 so it’s one of our older machines but it’s still one of the most popular machines that we sell here at BPM. The 1710 supports hundreds of different packages with a broad range of socket modules and it also supports many legacy devices like the PAP the GAL the CPLD the FPGA the EEPROM nor flash EEPROM and Actel antifuse devices. And an amazing fact about the 7th gen is that we support 49,400 devices out of the box. Wow, that’s a lot! it also supports high and very low voltage devices and it’s the industry standard for mission-critical aerospace and military programming. pretty amazing right? the 7th gen is able to support the fsm48d which handles 98% of the dip package devices. this is it closed and this is it open pretty easy to take on and take off. Okay, so it also supports the fsm84up which handles 95% of the PLCC package devices. that’s it open.

Now that we’ve learned a little bit about the 1710 let’s move on over to the 9th gen our newest model. The 2900 is a modern high-speed universal programmer that is capable of programming at the theoretical limit of the device this handles a lot of our future devices our newer devices whereas the 1710 was handling a lot of our older devices on board it includes proprietary vector engine coprocessor that stands alone in the industry vastly increasing throughput for high-density devices the 9th gen boasts a support list of almost 40000 devices wow it has weekly device support additions and programs up to four devices at a time using socket cards and daughter cards fve, lx, wx, was, and ws unlike most of our competitors who require you to purchase multiple saga cards at once you only have to purchase one for your first article and if you need more capacity no problem you can add up to 11 more programmers for a total of 12 programmers on a single computer programming up to 48 devices at a time isn’t that pretty awesome? the 9th gen has backward compatibility with all socket modules supported on the 8th generation that’s the 2800 3800 4800 etc and also most socket modules on the 7th generation so that’s your 1710 2710 3710 etc

the 9th Gen supports the NAND flash series of devices supports the EMMC series of devices including the following program speed modes sdr, ddr, hs200, and hs400. the onboard memory of the 2900 is 256 gigabytes and is expandable up to 512 gigabytes. Wow that’s a lot of megabytes (off camera: you meangigabytes?) whatever.

So to sum up what we talked about today your 1710 programmer is going to be a little bit slower but it’s going to be for programming those older devices like your legacy devices whereas your 2900 is going to be a little faster and it’s better for newer and higher density devices. one of the benefits of having a 1710 over the 2900 is software is included for life so you don’t have to get a renewed quote for it every year like you would have to on the 2900. However the 2900 is going to be a lot faster and it has a lot sleeker design it’s just better for overall production if you’re going to be using those newer and higher density devices both of these are going to be using bp win so if you are looking to purchase a new programmer and you don’t want to get rid of your bp win you don’t have to fret because both of these use that actually all of our programmers do.

If you are interested or have any questions regarding these programmers you can email tech at bpmicro.com or if you’re interested in purchasing you can email inside sales bpmicro.com thank you guys so much for watching this video I really hope you enjoyed it and I will see you guys next time. bye!

(That’s like a lot of gigabytes)

Video: Bring your mission-critical programming in-house

Video: Bring your mission-critical programming in-house

Video: Bring your mission-critical programming in-house

Since about 2010, the strongest market segment for Automated Programmers has been Automotive suppliers. Automotive suppliers have an ever-increasing need for programming as cars become more complex and technology-driven. They also often require 3D inspection and laser marking to ensure consistent quality and to track inventory. Big projects, with millions of programmed devices, make device programming in-house a no-brainer.

Smaller OEMs, while perhaps having many of the same needs as the Automotive guys, were constrained by limited resources. As their programming needs outgrew their ability to produce on manual systems, the only option was to outsource to the programming houses or ship their component manufacturing off-shore.

Then came the perfect storm of 2019: a crippling trade war, followed by a growing pandemic.

Read more  Here

Hot buttons for OEMs and Contract Manufacturers

  • Faster time to market– go from prototype to production in weeks, not months
  • Expand vertical manufacturing capability
  • React to design changes quickly– tweaks in code can be updated to the workflow in just a few minutes
  • Intellectual Property physically protected from theft
  • Don’t have to shut down the line due to supply chain issues with programmed devices
  • Device programming is easier than ever before; Installed and operational in less than one week
  • Manual programmers can provide 10s of thousands of devices per year; when demand exceeds manual capacity, it’s easy to migrate to an automated system (same sockets, software, no need to redo first article, etc.)
  • One high-speed universal platform can support millions of devices per year, at an incredibly low cost per device
  • As demand increases, it’s easy to add additional sites for more capacity. If additional capacity is needed, add additional shifts without needing highly skilled technicians
  • Lower cost solutions (3901, 3928) provide the greatest value in the industry. ROI in months, not years.

See White Paper

Signal Integrity

Signal Integrity

Signal Integrity

A “green light” doesn’t always mean the part is programmed correctly

High quality signals, Examples: Free-Running Clock (200MHz)

Have you ever had an electronic item that sometimes glitches or just stops running? Yes, you checked the batteries; it’s plugged into the wall— yet, nothing. It may not be you… You may be experiencing amnesia.

When a device loses its pattern, it’s called amnesia. Sometimes it’s called a bit-flip. It may start with just an occasional failure to boot up, but then progresses until the gadget won’t work at all. To understand how this can happen, let’s talk about how data is actually stored. 

It may surprise you, but device programming is actually (more or less) analog. The basic building block of all code is a bit. Bits form bytes, and bytes form the foundation for most code. Bits are “1” or “0”, but to get that “bit” of information, we actually start much smaller—electrons.   

When programming a serial flash device or MCU, every bit we store in the device is stored on a floating gate MOSFET transistor. The floating gate transistor, which is the basis of every flash device, is inherently an analog device. To get a “1” bit means it has more than a certain number of electrons stored on the gate; a “0” bit means it has fewer than that certain number. In between the “0” and the “1” lies a region of uncertainty— where the bit is going to read as a “1” sometimes and a “0” other times (not good).

Electrons are lost during the years that the device is in service due to ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays (even normal sunlight). If there are not enough electrons stored on the floating gate during programming, the device can lose its memory prematurely. 

Device Life Depends on Signal Integrity

Most devices today are rated for 20 years of data retention. But, if not properly programmed, data may be lost after just a few hours, months or years, even if the device passes the initial “green light” verification.

Programmers must go to great lengths to ensure signal integrity when programming devices. It requires specialized hardware that is typically not found in less expensive programmers. The acid test— can the programmer program and test the most challenging devices, such as the AMD PALs, which are notoriously “challenging,” or antifuse FPGAs, where a single device can cost upwards of $100K each. In programming devices, it’s vital to meet every specification of the device being programmed to avoid bit flips. 

Controlled impedance traces on the PCBs are critical to signal integrity. Controlled impedance is the characteristic impedance of a transmission line formed by PCB conductors. It is relevant when high-frequency signals propagate on the PCB transmission lines. Controlled impedance is important for signal integrity: it is the propagation of signals without distortion.  Boards should be thoroughly tested in-house on a high-dollar oscilloscope before manufacturing. Not all of our board vendors make the grade. The problem gets down to overshoot and ringing, undershoot and rise times, and noise on these edges, set up and hold times— all these specs have to be met, or the quality of the part may prematurely degrade. 

Older Tesla Models are Wearing Out

According to a recent article in EE Times, the embedded NAND-based eMMC memory found in older Tesla Model S and X units are wearing out and bricking the in-vehicle displays. With the Flash memory down, drivers no longer have access to some of the vehicle’s features, including climate control, autopilot, and lighting control. While owners can still technically drive the affected electric vehicles, they will not be able to charge them, effectively making the cars inoperable. This has been exasperated by the in-vehicle displays getting frequently updated, which is wearing the chips out prematurely.

The Green Light

The green light on the socket indicates the programmer was able to verify the part. Unfortunately, it may not mean the programmer is meeting all of the device requirements. Waveform integrity has to be verified with an oscilloscope, not just the green light — it’s about meeting the specs of the device with clean waveforms for maximum quality and life expectancy. 

Each part you are programming was tested and qualified on a “million-dollar” tester at the Semi House to ensure it works correctly. The device manufacturer guarantees the part will work if you meet the parts specifications. They do not test the part to ensure it will work with overshoot, ringing, ground bounce, VCC noise, ground noise, crosstalk, substrate noise, low edge rates, no bypass capacitor, setup violations, hold time violations, shorter than required programming pulses and other signal integrity problems.

When a device is programmed with inferior waveform quality, it effectively becomes a “test pilot.” How long will the data be retained? Nobody knows. It has never been tested and qualified in those conditions. Even if it passes today, that doesn’t mean it will continue to work in-circuit, with variations in voltage, temperature, timing, and the inevitable decay caused by continual bombardment from solar and terrestrial radiation sources. 

One more thing to look for is “hard gold” on the PCBs. Hard gold is an extra layer of quality to ensure low resistance contacts, especially on socket cards connections between the PCB and socket. It also ensures solder connections that won’t oxidize.


The Bottom Line

  • Many cheap programmers are available that don’t pay attention to signal integrity
  • Just getting the green light on is not the same as programming the DUT correctly. It does not ensure good signal integrity.
  • When you don’t meet the device specs, you become a test pilot. You are operating the device in conditions it has never been tested to handle. Your results are unpredictable.
  • Devices can get amnesia days, months or years after programming if the programmer has poor signal integrity
  • Programmers with 2-layer boards, dip adapters and no active circuitry by the socket are highly suspect 

To Ensure Signal Quality

  • Pin drivers  must be are accurate enough to meet the stringent demands of eMMC programming at HS400 with 600ps rise time and fall time
  • Utilize premium 3GHz controlled-impedance connectors on every socket adapter 
  • Design using controlled impedance multi-layer PCBs right up to the socket to maintain signal integrity
  • Test the waveform accuracy and impedance of circuit boards to ensure signal integrity
  • Sophisticated Oscilloscope tests should be used to confirm performance, rise time and signal integrity


Not all programming solutions are the same. If quality and maximum device life are important, it’s imperative to know what to look for. When evaluating a programming solution, ask about signal integrity. Go through the device specifications and demand evidence that all of the specs are being followed.
3D Printing Allows Rapid Development, Lower Cost, Just-In-Time Inventory

3D Printing Allows Rapid Development, Lower Cost, Just-In-Time Inventory

3D Printing Allows Rapid Development, Lower Cost, Just-In-Time Inventory

We recently launched a variant product primarily due to 3D printing

BPM Microsystems manufactures device programmers (like copiers for microchips). Our mid-sized automated programmer, the 3910, can be configured with up to 4 of our programming sites, each of which can program up to 4 devices concurrently. The housing for the sites is a fabricated metal “cage”, which doesn’t allow for any custom configuration.

Enter the 3D printer…

Our engineering and production teams experimented with 3D printing individual site chassis. They were able to rapidly iterate different prototypes (rapid as in overnight compared to 5-8 weeks); final pieces were printed in carbon fiber filament.

“I’m moving BPM’s manufacturing and rapid prototyping into 3D printing because it’s so fast and flexible,” says Jon Bondurant, Vice President of Operations at BPM.  “The reduced turnaround times allow for fast iteration of continuous improvement cycles. 3D printing creates very little waste and uses recyclable materials making it a sustainable approach for replacing wasteful traditional manufacturing processes.”

3D printing enabled an existing platform to increase possible sites from 4 to 7 (a 75% increase in capacity) while reducing the cost of the site chassis from hundreds of dollars to a little over $10 in materials. Site chassis no longer need to be ordered in advance or pulled from existing inventory; they can be printed on-demand when the order comes in. We are looking into expanding into other areas, such as sockets and other parts that we previously machined on our CNC.

To see the 3928 go to bpmmicro.com/3928-7-site-aps/